List of bicycle parts (English)

List of Bicycle Parts and Components

Modern bicycles are made with dozens and dozens of parts, but the most important ones are its frame, wheels, tires, seating, steering, drivetrain, and brakes. This relative simplicity enabled initial bicycle creators to create reliable and easy to use bicycle designs mere decades after first velocipedes started being sold in 1960s France, but with a little effort they enhanced the bicycle design to accommodate much more parts that are today part of all modern bicycles.

Most important bicycle components:

Frame – Bicycle frame is the central component of the bicycle on which all other components are mounted. They are usually made from very sturdy and strong materials (most commonly steel, aluminum alloys, carbon fiber, titanium, thermoplastic, magnesium, wood, scandium and many others, including combinations between materials) that are formed into design that fits the use case scenario of the bicycles. Most modern bicycles are made in the form of the upright bicycle that is based on the Rover’s Safety Bicycle of 1980s. It consists from two triangles, form what is today most commonly known as “diamond frame”. However, in addition to the diamond frame that requires driver to step with his legs across the “top tube”, many other designs are today used. Most notable ones are step-through frames (targeted for woman drivers), cantilever, recumbent, prone, cross, truss, monocoque and many other types that are used in highly specialized bicycle types such as tandem bicycles, penny-farthings, folding bicycles and others.

Wheels – Bicycle wheels were initially made from wood or steel, but with the invention of pneumatic tires they switched to the modern lightweight wire wheel design. Their main components are hub (that houses axle, bearings, gears and more), spokes, rim and tire.

Drivetrain and Gearing – Transferring the power from the users legs (or in some cases hands) is done utilizing mechanisms that are focused on three specific areas – power collection (pedals that rotate on the geared wheel), power transmission (collection of power of the pedals onto a chain or some other similar component such as chainless belt or shaft) and finally speed and torque conversion mechanisms (gearbox, shifters or direct connection to the single gear that is connected to the rear wheel axle).

Steering and Seating – Steering on the modern upright bicycles is achieved by connecting handlebars with the turn fork via the stem which can freely rotate within the headset. Normal “upright” handlebars have traditional look of bicycles that are produced ever since 1860s, but modern road and racing bicycles also have “Drop handlebars” that are curved forward and down. This configuration demands from driver to push himself forward in best aerodynamic position. Seats are made in countless configuration, form those that are extra comfortable and padded, to those that are more rigid and narrower toward the front so that they can give driver more space for leg movements.

Brakes – Bicycle brakes come in several types - Spoon brakes (rarely used today), Duck brakes (same), Rim brakes (friction pads that press the rim of the rotating wheel, very common), Disc brakes, Drum brakes, Coaster brakes , Drag brakes and Band brakes. While many of those brakes are made to be used as with Actuation mechanisms, some are hydraulic or even hybrid.

Complete list of bicycle parts:

Bar ends
Bar plugs or end caps
Bicycle brake cable
Bottle cage
Bottom bracket
Brake lever
Brake shifter
Cable guide
Cartridge bearing
Drive Chain
Chain tensioner
Derailleur hanger 

Down tube
Electronic Gear-Shifting System
Fork end
Handlebar plug
Handlebar tape
Head badge
Head tube
Hub dynamo
Hub gear
Inner tube
Jockey wheel
Lug: a
Luggage carrier
Master link
Portage strap
Quick release
Removable training wheels
Safety levers
Seat rails
Seat lug
Seat tube
Seat bag
Shock absorber
Side view mirror
Skirt guard or coatguard
Steering tube
Toe clips
Top tube
Valve stem


  • List of bicycle parts by alphabetic order I.:

    Axle: as in the generic definition, a rod that serves to attach a wheel to a bicycle and provides support for bearings on which the wheel rotates. Also sometimes used to describe suspension components, for example a swing arm pivot axle
    Bar ends: extensions at the end of straight handlebars to allow for multiple hand positions
    Bar plugs or end caps: plugs for the ends of handlebars
    Basket: cargo carrier
    Bearing: a device that facilitates rotation by reducing friction
    Bell: an audible device for warning pedestrians and other cyclists
    Belt-drive: alternative to chain-drive
    Bicycle brake cable: see Cable
    Bottle cage: a holder for a water bottle
    Bottom bracket: The bearing system that the pedals (and cranks) rotate around. Contains a spindle to which the crankset is attached and the bearings themselves. There is a bearing surface on the spindle, and on each of the cups that thread into the frame. The bottom bracket may be overhaulable (an adjustable bottom bracket) or not overhaulable (a cartridge bottom bracket). The bottom bracket fits inside the bottom bracket shell, which is part of the bicycle frame
    Brake: devices used to stop or slow down a bicycle. Rim brakes and disc brakes are operated by brake levers, which are mounted on the handlebars. Band brake is an alternative to rim brakes but can only be installed at the rear wheel. Coaster brakes are operated by pedaling backward
    Brake lever: a lever for actuating a bicycle brake
    Brake shifter or colloquially, brifter (see also Shimano Total Integration, Campagnolo ErgoPower and SRAM Double Tap): combined shifter and brake lever control
    Braze-on: a fitting protruding from a frame to provide attachment, typically for cable housings or tire pumps and similar accessories
    Cable guide: a fitting below the bottom bracket which guides a piece of bare inner bowden cable around a corner
    Cable: a metal cable enclosed in part by a metal and plastic housing that is used to connect a control, such as a brake or shifting lever, to the device it activates
    Cartridge bearing: a type of bearing that is not user-serviceable, but must be replaced as a unit
    Cassette: a group of stacked sprockets on the rear wheel of a bicycle with a rear derailleur
    Coaster brake or backpedal brake
    Chain: a system of interlinking pins, plates and rollers that transmits power from the front sprocket(s) to the rear sprocket(s)
    Chainguard: Gear case cover for the entire chain either totally encasing (sometimes containing oil) or 'incomplete'. Either way, designed to keep clothing from fouling the chain. See also Skirtguard, Bashguard.
    Chainring: (one of the) front gear(s), attached to a crank
    Chainstay: a pair of tubes on a bicycle frame that runs from the bottom bracket to the rear fork ends
    Chain tensioner: a device to maintain proper chain tension
    Chaintug: a device to aid in setting the proper chain tension
    Cluster: a bicycle cogset, either a freewheel, or cassette
    Cogset: the set of rear sprockets that attaches to the hub on the rear wheel
    Cone: holds bearings in place, pressed against the cup
    Cotter: pin for attaching cottered cranks
    Coupler: to connect tubing together
    Crankset or chainset: composed of cranks and at least one chainring
    Cup: receives ball bearings which roll along its inner surface; integrated on most conventional hubs or can be pressed into older bottom bracket shells. See also Cone
    Cyclocomputer: an electronic accessory that measures and displays instantaneous and cumulative speed and distance. Often provides other measurements such as heart rate
    Derailleur hanger: a piece on the rear dropout that the derailleur attaches to.
    Derailleur: an assembly of levers, usually cable actuated, that moves the chain between sprockets on a cassette or chainring assembly
    Down tube: tube on the bicycle frame that runs from the head tube to the bottom bracket
    Dropout: a bicycle rear fork end that allows the rear wheel to be removed without first derailing the chain. The term dropout is often incorrectly used to refer to any fork end, but not all fork ends are dropouts
    Dustcap: any cap serving to keep dirt and contamination out of an assembly. Common over crank bolts, often plastic
    Dynamo: bicycle lighting component, also known as generator

  • edited July 2018

    List of bicycle parts by alphabetic order II.:

    1) attachment point on frame, fork, or dropout for fenders, racks, etc.
    2) a hole through which a spoke nipple passes through the rim so it may attach to a spoke
    Electronic Gear-Shifting System: not simply a type of shifter or a type of derailleur, a complete system with switches instead of levers, wires instead of Bowden cables, and motor-driven derailleurs that must all work together
    Fairing: a full or partial covering for a bicycle to reduce aerodynamic drag or to protect the rider from the elements
    Fender or mudguard: curved pieces of metal or plastic above the tires which catch and redirect road spray thrown up by the tires, allowing the rider to remain relatively clean. May come in pairs
    Ferrule: a metal or plastic sleeve used to terminate the end of a cable housing
    Fork: a mechanical assembly that integrates a bicycle's frame to its front wheel and handlebars, allowing steering by virtue of its steerer tube
    Fork end: paired slots on a fork or frame at which the axle of the wheel is attached. See also Dropout
    Frame: the mechanical core of a bicycle, the frame provides points of attachment for the various components that make up the machine. The term is variously construed, and can refer to the base section, always including the bottom bracket, or to base frame, fork, and suspension components such as a shock absorber
    Freehub: a ratcheting assembly onto which a cog or cassette is mounted that allows the bicycle to coast without the pedals turning
    Freewheel: a ratcheting assembly that incorporates one or more cogs and allows the bicycle to coast without the pedals turning
    Gusset: plates added to the outsides of frame tubes to strengthen joints. These are more commonly seen on BMX and mountain bikes
    Hanger: part of frame or an attachment to the frame to which the derailleur is attached (see Derailleur hanger)
    Handlebar: a lever attached, usually using an intermediary stem, to the steerer tube of the fork. Allows steering and provides a point of attachment for controls and accessories
    Handlebar plug: see Bar plugs
    Handlebar tape: a tape wound around dropped handlebars so as to provide padding and grip, usually cork or cloth, sometimes foam rubber
    Head badge: manufacturer's or brand logo affixed to the head tube
    Head tube: the tube of a bicycle frame that contains the headset
    Headset: the bearings that form the interface between the frame and fork steerer tube
    Hood: the rubber brake lever covering on bikes with drop style handle bars
    Hub: the core of a wheel; contains bearings and, in a traditional wheel, has drilled flanges for attachment of spokes
    Hub dynamo: a generator inside one of the hubs for powering lights or other accessories
    Hub gear: a gearbox mounted inside the hub, 3-speed is common, 5, 7 are available ("Sturmey-Archer") and Rohloff make a 14-speed hub. Cable operated by one or two cables
    Indicator: a turn signal
    Inner tube: a bladder that contains air to inflate a tire. Has a Schrader, "Woods"/"Dunlop" or Presta valve for inflation and deflation
    Jockey wheel: one of two small sprockets of the rear derailleur that guide the chain
    Kickstand: a folding attachment used for assisting a bicycle to stand up on its own. Usually mounts to frame near bottom bracket, sometimes near rear dropouts
    "Lawyer lips": also called a "lawyer tab", a retention device on the dropouts of the front fork to prevent inadvertent loss of the front wheel in the case it is not properly secured
    Locknut: a nut designed not to loosen due to vibration
    Lockring: a ring, usually metal, of varying design, that serves to retain a component in place
    Lug: a metal connector used to align frame components where they join each other
    Luggage carrier: any accessory equipment designed to carry tools, gear or cargo
    Master link: a bicycle chain accessory that allows convenient removal and reconnection of an installed bicycle chain without the need for a chain tool
    Nipple: a specialized nut that most commonly attaches a spoke to a wheel rim. In some systems, it provides attachment to the hub

  • List of bicycle parts by alphabetic order II.:

    Pannier: cloth zippered storage bags that mount to sides of luggage racks. Pronounced pan-ear, or pan-yer (an old English word, which is derived from an old French word)
    Pedal: mechanical interface between foot and crank arm. There are two general types; one secures the foot with a mechanical clamp or cage and the other has no connection to lock the foot to the pedal.
    Peg: short metal tube, about 6 inches (15 cm) long and 2 inches (5.1 cm) fastened to one or both ends of the wheel axles to either enable the rider perform certain tricks or provide a place for extra riders to stand or rest
    Portage strap: a strap (usually made of leather) attached to the inside of the bike frame, designed to make carrying the bike over one's shoulder easier
    Quick release: a skewer with a lever on one end that loosens when the lever is flipped. Used for releasing wheels and seat posts
    Rack: a rack that attaches behind the seat, usually with stays to the rear dropouts, that serves as a general carrier
    Reflector: reflects light to make bicycle evident when the illuminated by headlights of other vehicles. Usually required by law but held in disdain by many cyclists
    Removable training wheels: used for assisting balance. Comes in pair. Useful for first time bicyclists
    Rim: that part of a wheel to which the tire is attached and often forms part of the braking mechanism

    1) the disc component of a disc brake.[1]
    2) another name for a detangler - a device that allows the handlebars and fork to revolve indefinitely without tangling the rear brake cable.
    Safety levers: extension levers, and interrupt brake levers. Used to apply brakes in order for the bicycle to slow down or suddenly stop
    Saddle or Seat: what a bicyclist sits on
    Seat rails: a metal framework over which saddle covering is stretched. The seat post attaches to the seat rails by means of a clamp
    Seat lug: a frame lug on the top of the seat tube serving as a point of attachment for a clamp to secure the seat post
    Seat tube: the roughly vertical tube in a bicycle frame running from the seat to the bottom bracket
    Seat bag: a small storage accessory hung from the back of a seat
    Seatpost: a post that the seat is mounted to. It slides into the frame's seat tube and is used to adjust ride height depending how far into the seat tube it is inserted
    Seatstay: frame components, small diameter tubes running from top of seat tube to rear dropouts
    Shaft-drive: alternate to chain-drive
    Shifter: gear shifting control
    Shock absorber: for bicycles with suspensions, a device that limits the rate at which suspension rebounds after absorbing an impact
    Side view mirror: aids in looking at the sides prior to moving slowly or turning to the left or to the right
    Skirt guard or coatguard: a device fitted over the rear wheel of a bicycle to prevent a long skirt, coat or other trailing clothes or luggage from catching in the wheel, or in the gap between the rim and the brakes
    Spindle: an axle around which a pedal rotates; threaded at one end to screw into crank arms
    Spoke: connects wheel rim to hub. Usually wire with one end swaged to form a head and one threaded end. A typical wheel has 36 spokes
    Steering tube: a tube on top of a fork that is inserted through frame and serves as an axle by means of which bicycle can be steered
    Stem: a bracket used to attach handlebars to steerer tube of fork. Usually secured by pinch bolts
    Tire: as in common usage. Usually pneumatic. A tubular tire is glued to the wheel rim; most tires use tubes, but tubeless tires and rims are increasingly common
    Toe clips: a metal or plastic cage attached to a pedal. Usually has an adjustment strap. Secures foot to pedal for increased control and more effective transfer of power from foot to drive chain
    Top tube: frame member leading from steerer tube to seat tube
    Valve stem or simply valve: port for adding or releasing air from the inner tube. Two types are commonly used: Presta and Schrader. A third type, the Woods/Dunlop valve, can still be found in Europe and Asia.
    Wheel: as in common usage. Traditionally and most commonly spoked
    Wingnut: for attaching wheels before the development of the quick release skewer

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