Dr. Zsuzsa Frisnyák - Development of Bicycle Culture in Hungary

edited August 14 in Rad Culture

Dr. Zsuzsa Frisnyák - Developement of Bicycle Culture in Hungary
From: DR. FRISNYÁK ZSUZSA. A KERÉKPÁROZÁS KULTÚRÁJÁNAK KIALAKULÁSA:
real.mtak.hu/23774/1/kerekparozas.pdf

Article translated for Waffenradforums.net by BikeInfantry, 2018.08.13.

///note that the original text used is pre-1990s and could be updated by now///

Bicycles became commonly known tools of transportation in Hungary during the last two decades of the 19. century. People learned to make use of the „steel steed” in this period. Through the process of new ideas surfacing, the public oppinion on bicycles was changing as well, organizations regarding the topic were forming and the culture of appreciating bicycles as art objects was on it's way. These two decades we consider to be the golden age of cycling.
You need three key components for cycling: the machine, the human – it's good if you have a road too. In regards to bicycles more and more bicycle shops were forming across the country. Manufacturers reacting to the growing demand were filling up their stock and opening showrooms one after the other. In Budapest their business plan also included establishing bicycle schools next door to the already functioning stores. By 1900 we have 10 operational bicycle schools in the capitol out of which in eight you were also able to buy your own vehicle, with additional parts. A school called „Attila” even provided private lessons for ladies. Books were published educating everyday users how to maintain bicycles, first newspapers reporting on bicycle sports were founded.
Hungary's roads on the other hand were anything but optimal for practice. There were very little well executed roads. On these roads mostly consisting of gravel little stones were flying around from underneath the tires, earth based paths were bumpy, got wet, with many holes in them.
Besides Andrássy út (today: Népköztársaság útja) – which was covered with wooden planks – the other popular track among cyclists was the road to Gödöllő. Lots of complaints were filed regarding the roads of Alföld (the Great Hungarian Plain). Considered to be better quality, but more tiring were the routes of Erdély (Transylvania) and Felvidék (Hungarian Highlands).
Despite the fact that besides sports people only the aristocrat youth were the first to mount bicycles, the practice of cycling never became a priviledged sport of aristocracy in Hungary. Opposite to horse riding – to which cycling was compared many times – the purchase of bicycles over the years became also a possibility for a wider range of people. Cycling gained also popularity because of those using their bicycles as tools for work. The delivery man, the courier, the mailman, the postman. Professions of men using bicycles at the time turns out to be independent manufacturers and unmarried clerks. Cycling became the sport of civic society.
In the creation of bicycle culture the biggest role was played by bicycle associations. These forming cultural hubs were the backbone of defending cyclists against mis-judgement, which was acted out all too quikly. Also to educate people on how to use bicycles in the first place.

Comments

  • edited August 13

    The bicycle clubs

    In Hungary the first bicycle club was founded in 1882 being called Budapesti Kerékpár Egylet (Bicycle Club of Budapest). We don't have exact numbers of how many of these clubs were alltogether forming during this period. Despite that I tried to collect the ones being active between 1882-1900 and made an attempt to form a list of them. The list of names found in 1. melléklet (1. annex) I have gathered by researching news published in kerékpáros sajtó (Bicycle Press) and the material available in Országos Levéltár (National Archives). During this process one has to heavily rely on press materials - this fact is also being reflected in the poorness of the above mentioned listing. Typical for the inaccuracy of such newsfeed is to mention one and the same club with different names. In such cases it is only possible to filter the source by sequences. Besides this to find the right name and the year of when the organization was founded turned out to be a difficulty as well. For example Grafika Kerékpáros Kör (Graphichs Bicycle Circle), which although is portrait to be launched in 1898, only receives it's permission by the Ministry of Interior in 1899. In such cases I avaluated the year of all activities within the club starting. In certain cases it was impossible to find out what the specific year it was. Most clubs were not long lived, they only lasted a few seasons. If so, the members would take off to form new organizations.
    Most clubs had very few members. Both Marosvásárhelyi Kerékpár Egyesület (Bicycle Association of Marosvásárhely) and Pécsi Polgári Kerékpáros Egyesület (Civic Bicycle Association of Pécs) started operations with 28-28 members. In 1887 the Brassói Villám Vasparipa Egylet (Lightning Steel Steed Union of Brassó) had only 10 founding members and within three years they were still only 16 people in total. The Pápai Kerékpár Egylet (Bicycle Union of Pápa) in it's year of forming (1897) had only 14 members, but within 2 years there were more then 50 participants joining. The founder of Aradi Kerékpár Club (Bicycle Club of Arad) is reflecting well on the difficulties of recruting new members and launching the club. He had asked the membership papers to be signed accourding to the following process: „There on the corso I took hold of one or the other. – Please, read. – But man, I don't know how to ride a bike, I don't even have one. – But hey, that's not a problem, we will teach you how to, and you'll have a machine, just learn it. – But… – No arguments, sign this, since you were born to be cyclist. That usually worked, they signed.

  • edited August 13

    In forming a club two major factors were essential. The more important was the need to have interest in social activities. Everyday life of the middle-class was marked by the importance of belonging to a community. Some to more, some to less groups, but everybody was part of something. The other element of forming a club was the_ judging attitude_ of the public. It was obvious to most people signing up that it is far easier to deal with the public as a whole, than continuing a desperate fight with uncertain consiquences on your own. This was even formulated by the „Merkur” Kolozsvári Kerékpáros Egyesület (Bicycle Association „Mercury” of Kolozsvár) in their founding documents: „… it is protecting it's members and in case of any attack it is destined to do justice.”
    It is hard to reconstruct the mis-interpretations and mis-judgements cyclist at the time had to suffer – taking in consideration the nature of this process –, only the ones being accused are giving their complaints a voice in the media. Besides well masked bad intentions open agression wasn't a rarity at all. In 1899 for example inhabitants of Kerepes község (Village of Kerepes) were beating up cyclists entering town on multiple occasions – because of their high speeds. If a cyclist – out of misfortune or being unskilled – caused an accident, retorsion was swift. It's no coincidence that professionals were advising rookies that if they see suspicious looking people along the road they should decrease speed. So in any case of emergency one was able to jump off the steel steed. Life of cyclists wasn't only made difficult by the public. During the meetings of the Magyar Kerékpáros Szövetség (Hungarian Bicycle League) there were often complaints regarding the behaviour of the police, the negative approach of private companies, not to mention discriminative actions being ordered.
    The other type of discrimination was only dealing with women. Public oppinion not only found it unhealthy, but promiscious, and that it is unwomenly for females to cycle. In France, England, Germany, or even Austria it became already part of everyday life to see female cyclists, while in Hungary a woman on a bicycle shocked the audience. Cycling for women became common much slower in Hungary.
    Clubs set up several criteria for their new recruits including age and personality qualitfications.
    All people with a spotless character can be part of the club, those who with their middle-class profession, a good name and being cultured can attend asking for membership if already having reached the age of 18” – as written in the criteria list of Hungária Soproni Kerékpárosok Egyesülete (Hungária Sopron Club of Cyclists). Only men were allowed to join Condor Kerékpár Egylet (Bicycle Club Condor). Nemzeti Kerékpár Egyesület (National Bicycle Club) already allowed member of the opposite sex to join, but they were resctricted from the leadership board. Allowed members of Nagykanizsai Kerékpár Klub _(Bicycle Club of Nagykanizsa) were only those who were older than 20 years, „independent, intelligent and civics with an immaculate character”. Members of _Fiumei Veloce Kerékpározó Egyesület (Velociped Cycling Club of Fiume) were allowed to be those in Fiume or in proximity born young ladies and gentlemen who already reached 17 years of age and has enough physical strengh to practice cycling. Szegedi Kerékpár Egyesület (Bicycle Association of Szeged) for example excluded those who were cycling as part of their profession, were accepting money rewards for performing, are trainers or are racing. Members of the Grafika Kerékpár Kör (Graphics Bicycle Circle) could only be those who are employees with study background regarding the reproduction industry.

  • edited August 13

    Most important among the documents depicting life within the club is the list basic rules. In this they formulated their goals and their mission. Clubs saw their purpose in developing bicycle sports, the promotion of cycling and the psysical execise itself. These goals are amongst most basic rules (for example the „Előre” Kerékpáros Kör – Bicycle Club „Fowards” –, Beszterczei Kerékpáros Egylet – Besztercze Bicycle Club –, Nagyszebeni Vasparipa Club – Steel Steed Club of Nagyszeben –, Újvidéki Kerékpár Egyesület – Bicycle Association of Újvidék, etc.). The goal of Morvavölgyi Kerékpár Egyesület – Bicycle Association of Morvavölgy – was „developement of cycling in such a way, so in the future it can be adopted in practice to the public transport networking”. Pozsony Nevű Kerékpár Egyesület – Bicycle Association named Pozsony – aimed towards „teaching it's members cycling with caution and in the right manner even in case if they don't own a machine suitable for this purpose”. Csáktornyai Kerékpár Egyesület – Bicycle Association of Csáktornya – „is promoting bicycle sporting within it's own jurisdiction while supporting it's members through unification to enhance their abilities”. Introduction was among the main aims of Nemzeti Vasparipa Egyesület – National Steel Steed Association –. This association forming in 1883 had – from the base rules that I know of – the wides spectrum of tasks. They decided for exmaple to have a practice room, which will house training apparatuses sponzored by accumulated money of the association. They will educate the members on regular bases. They are going to contact factories and manufacturers both in Hungary and abroad to purchase good quality machines from them for low wages. To organize group outings, races and other entertainment thus the association is „making their member form bonds and to inspire them to stick to each other”. Unfortunately we don't have any sort of data on what got realised from all of this.

  • pic. 1. Promotion of cycling: bicycle parade in Medgyes in the 1890s

  • edited August 13

    Among the goals of bicycle association a concept of nationalism is formulated as well (for example Répcze Magyar Kerékpárosok Egyesülete – Hungarian Cyclist's Association of Répcze –, Pannónia Magyar Kerékpárosok Egyesülete – Hungarian Cyclist's Association of Pannónia –). The pempering of national characteristics through appearance „was to be shown undoubtedly”.
    To put the rules into practice clubs were organizing mostly races, bicycles parades and common outings.
    Through races and parades a wider audience was able to learn more about this new way of excersise. Even the sight of all the bicycles, velocipeds decorated with flowers made an impact (pic. 1.). These were the most important forms of promoting bicycles in general.
    In the spreading of bicycle culture club outings played a crutial role. To make an outing succesful there had to be such rules, which guarantee undisturbed exploration and the well-being of all participants. The in most cases already set up choreography of these outings included formalities as well, still these needed rules made people understand the method of cycling. The rules of Zalaegerszegi Kerékpár Egylet – Bicycle Club of Zalaegerszeg – was dictating the following. The attendees of an outing are supposed to greet each other with „Adj Isten” (God bless you) when arriving to the meeting point. Attending the outing is only allowed in the club uniform, with the club pin attached and with all necessary gear belonging to the bicycle itself. Belonging to the bicycle are: kulcs, glue, tire valves, bellow, oiler, braking, bell, lamp, further more a whip or cane against dogs. While riding the commander is leading the way upfront and his deputy is following as last member of the convoy. Theo thers according to the road conditions are following in one, two, three of four rows holding 6 meters distance from one another. If anyone had an accident all were to unmount. Beyond questions regarding the safety of all attendees, the rules were including practical content as well (for example the choice of route, the resting places, etc.), whih it was enforcing.
    With the spreading of of bicycles the first rules of transport were born. The Ministry of Inner Affiars was dealing with this in it's regulations. In this they stated that cycling is only allowed on roads made for cars. Local authorities in some cases were allowing the usage of the sidewalk if the roads were in bad condition, but only „with speeds not exceeding those a waling human being”. Within the towns jurisdiction cyclists were not allowed to move faster as a pair-horse lightweight carriage. If a horse got scared by the bicycle, the owner had to unmount immediately.
    Appearances were also an important factor regarding the everyday live of bicycle associations. It's manifastations were the club outfit and the clun emblem pin. We not only discover human narcisissism and the need to follow trends by observing these, but these elements also played an important role in the expression of unification. „The association spirit, the feeling of belonging and life within the assiciation managed by the image of status to maintain a bond with the world itself demand that all members should appear in the eyes of outsiders even by the tiniest detail as individuals who maintain intellectual and social deeds.”

  • edited August 13

    The club outfit

    Only long lived clubs were taking care of having a common outfit. Most important part of that was the club cap. The purcahse of it didn't mean any financial hardship, on this they wore the club pin, which in popularity was surpassing the outfit by far.
    Club expected from their members on certain occasions to show up in the club uniform. „During any outings organized by the association, during races and festivities real members are those who show up with their bicycles, wearing the official uniform and pin.
    Uniform of the Brassói Kerékpályázó Társaság (Velodrom Society of Brassó) consisted of the following components: a lovár cap, a slimfit short jacket, a sports shirt, a hose with stockings, and a pair of slim sole shoes. The uniform itself was blue. The uniform of the Fiumei Veloce Kerékpározó Egyesület (Velociped Cycling Club of Fiume) was black, the one worn by the Budapesti Kerékpár Egyesület (Bicycle Association of Budapest) was greyish black. The Aradi Kerékpár Club (Bicycle Club of Arad) outing dress consisted of a dark blue „lóden” jacket, blue hat, black knee socks, loose pants, black so called „bergsteiger” shoes and a grey light tone sweater. All this at a price of 15 frt (Forint). This particular club also demanded a ceremonial outfit for it's members to have, blue-black and cream colours with a black „Atlas” bow tie. The Hunnia Magyar Bicycle Club (Hungarian Hunnia Bicycle Club) also made the decision to have a uniform:
    Let there be no doubt about the well known fact how high standards we set within our club regarding the club spirit of unity and let it be shown through the looks of ours”.
    It was Feri Udvary (sic.) cyclist of Körmend's idea to have a sports outfit Hungarian style. This looked the following. The cap was made of black textile, adding a black leather shield. The jacket
    thick dark blue textile till the hips, with cord knitting decoation, and pockets. All of this is emphesized by a wide / broad buckle belt. Pants should be the same colour as the jacket reaching two fingers under the knees. The outfits was topped with black stockings and a simple lace boots (2. pic.). This type of Hungarian cyclist outfit – despite the origina lintentions – never became popular among bicycle associations. Only a few clubs of Dunántúl (West Hungary) chose it, one of these was Pannónia Magyar Kerékpárosok Egyesülete (Hungarian Cyclist's Association Pannónia). They were dealing with the rules of wearing the outfit in detail. „The outfit of the association is the outfit of the Hungarian national cyclist. In all cases when representing the association it is mandatory for all registered members to wear it. During outings while members are not representing the assoiciation as emissaries other clothes can be worn as well, but the association cap with pin must be present. Regarding the needs of the association the full outfit has to be worn at all times in case of sport events. In cases of events effected by personal goals the uniform and the pin are stricktly forbidden. In opposite cases of any type the association commity can bann the particular member from being part of the association.”
    Because of the fact that female members were very rare, the uniform of women as an independent topic wasn't actualized at all. In those circles where there were women the same cloth was used to make a fitting jacket and skirt for them.
    On the contrarary to men, cyling women already back then didn't find uniforms attractive. For them the question what to wear was essential. Skirts were highly dangerous, pants on the other hand were scarcely criticised by pedestrians. Despite having media feedback through fashion magazines showing sexy cyclist outfits including hoses, the public reaction was so uncomforting that Hungarian women were waering these only on rare occasions.

  • edited August 13

    The club pin

    More common then uniforms were the widespread and highly popular club pins. While not all clubs had uniforms, pins we found to be available in every each group.
    Collecting of bicycle club pins is far from being an easy task these days. Most pins were produced in very little numbers. Often we only take notice of them through secondary sources (let's say the press is riporting on which club made what sort of pin for itself).
    Club pins were expressing the owners personal belonging to an organization exclusively: „it is the obligation of all registered members to wear the pin during sport outings or in any case of representing the association”.
    In the means of bonding, as well as taking part in lifting the group moral and to communcate this avareness towards a broader public, this was the most important sociological function of club pins. Owners were wearing them with proud, since „the club pin in means of being a cyclist was equal to the military sword knot.” The technique of wearing the pin was as much regulated within the association as wearing the unifrom itself.
    The shape of the pin was decided by the electors or the board. Clubs with few members stationed in the countryside would most often ask for advise from the local jewelry maker. Bigger clubs in some cases happened to have ordered their unique pins from abroad; for example Fecske Kerékpár Egyesület (Swallow Bicycle Association) in Wien from Belada's, the Magyar Kerékpáros Szövetség (Hungarian Bicycle League) from Paris. The pins of Sólyom Kerékpáros Egyesület (Hawk Bicycle Association), Csillag Kerékpáros Kör (Star Bicycle Circle), Tull és Handa a Zóna Kerékpár Egylet (Tull and Handa the Zone Bicycle Club) were produced by Morzsányi, while the ones of Fővárosi Kerékpár Egylet (Bicycle Club of the Capitol) by Schmalhofer.
    From the board protocol of the I. Pozsonyi Kerékpár Egyesület (I. Bicycle Association of Pozsony) we can get an idea of how the people involved decided about the look of their future pins. „Mr. Hardtmuth is presenting the pins made by the company Abel as well as other club pins being sent in for checking… It was decided that the form of the club pin should definately be round, in the middle of which (in case the city council of Pozsony allows it) the coat of arms of the city should be placed, but in opposite case there only should be a round part with Első Pozsonyi Kerékpáros Egyesület engraved around it.
    The association members outside having their club pins (which they wore most often on their caps) they were not allowed to wear any other pin whatsoever. Those bicycle clubs, which joined the Magyar Kerékpáros Szövetség (Hungarian Bicycle League) automatically received the MKSZ pin as well. Members of such high ranking groupings were allowed to stick that on their caps as well.
    A new habit, namely collecting pins started to weaken the original prestige and functionality of the items since now people who didn't belong to any association – not sure if they even agreed to the terms of every each – could own the pins. This lead to clubs wanting to protect their pins. „Every member leaving the association is oblidged to give the pin back, but if refusing to do so, these particular individuals will be banned from wearing the pins by being exposed publicly via newspaper to have done so.
    Associations didn't enjoy watching the popular process of pins changing owners: „The dressz (outfit) and the jelvény (pin) as expressions of belonging to a club are the two factors differentiating people being part of one or the other club. Yet we can see that the coming and going of club pins at every each random meeting is reaching it's climax and that sporting colleagues, members of all sorts of clubs are decorating one another with their own club pins, not to mention the common sight during races and sport festivities of certain sportsmen who's chest is full of pins, which are precisly because of that randomness not expressing their original functionality anymore: belonging to a specific grouping. Regarding such circumstances the pin looses it's prestige becoming what it never should have been, a toy, and as means of expression simply the pin of egoism.

  • edited August 13

    Today we are „using” the historic ducumentation value of these club pins as sources of scientific investigation. The social values expressed through these pins are analysed from having a very close look at how they were designed.
    From viewing them as having heraldic values, club pins show to be closely relatable with címerrekkel (crests) and pecsétekkel (official stamps).
    The pins looking like crests or coat of arms are consisting of a very diversely decorated escutcheon and the surrounding framwork of the escutheon (szalag - ribbon). This notable structure is represented by the pin of the Zombori Kerékpár Egyesület (Bicycle Association of Zombor), the Jupiter Kerékpáros Asztaltársaság (Bicycle Round-table Jupiter), the Budapesti Úri Kerékpározó Egyesület (Gentlemen's Bicycle Association of Budapest), the Fecske Kerékpár Egyesület (Swallow Bicycle Association), the Diána Kerékpár és Sportegyesület (Diána Bicycle and Sport Association), the Zóna Kerékpár Egyesület (Zone Bicycle Association). In the pin of Grafika Kerékpáros Kör (Graphichs Bicycle Circle) not only the shield, but the heraldics of the coat of arms are diverse: helmt, decoration of the helmet and even a helmet stand can be found. Having a more simple structre are thos pins, which consist of a escutcheon only, thus the name of the club and the year of founding it are represented within the shield. Such are for example the pins of Condor Kerékpár Egylet (Condor Bicycle Club), Vándorkedv Kerékpár Kör (Wanderlust Bicycle Circle), Edison Kerékpár Egyesület (Edison Bicycle Association), Hunnia Magyar Bicycle Club (Hunnia Hungarian Bicycle Club), Aradi Kerékpár Club (Bicycle Club of Arad), Győri Kerékpár Egylet (Bicycle Club of Győr), Kassai Kerékpár Egylet (Bicycle Club of Kassa).
    Pins looking like stamps are round with the text rounding around them (name of the club and year of founding). In the middle there is usually as stylised motive, such as a bicycle wheel, bicycle, or perhaps a geometric pattern, like in those of Zóna Kerékpár Egyesület (Zone Bicycle Association), Csillag Kerékpáros Kör (Star Bicycle Circle),_ Fővárosi Kerékpár Egylet_ (Bicycle Club of the Capitol). Although in such cases the pin is imitating the for of a stamp, it is not doing that without any conscent. Pins looking like stamps are much harder to find as those reminescent of coat of arms.

  • edited August 13

    According to my current knowledge there are two clubs, „Merkur” Kolozsvári Kerékpáros Egyesület (Bicycle Association „Mercury” of Kolozsvár) and Pozsony Úri Kerékpározó Egylete (Gentlemen's Bicycle Club of Pozsony), which have a pin and a stamp being identical. In this case the most interesting thing is that they didn't „pinned up” the stamp, but on the contrarary, the pin got „stamped up”. Thus they made the stamp following the blueprints of the pin. The pin and the stamp of the group stationed in Kolozsvár has a figure of Mercury holding a winged bicycle wheel in his right with a three part escutcheon in his left. The pin and stamp of the cyclists of Pozsony is an escutcheon surrounded by a ribbon running in an oval shape. Inside the ribbon is the association's name, in this field the winged bicycle with an oak tree garland.
    Club pins not only in their appearance, but also in their function can be realted to crests and other pins. There were pins, which had the authentication authority of a stamp. Associations with such rules gave their members wearing the pin all sorts of discounts. By wearing the club pin you were authorised to receive the discount.
    The coat of arms in most cases represents the owner itself; the same happens symbolically with club pins. The closeness of too many symbols on the other hand resulted in a kitschy apperance.
    It was no coinsindence that clubs reached out specifically to stamps and coat of arms designs. This represents the need of creating and following an unexisting tradition. To be officially exceptable in the eyes of the public with all their opertaions they had to go for the most conventional methods. The approach to „look like more as they are” prevented them to design more simple and tasty pins representing the given club accurately. But indeed there was need for more modern forms and shapes. On one occasion in 1898 during the meeting of the Magyar Kerékpáros Szövetség (Hungarian Bicycle League) this is exactly what happened.
    The need to create a tradition was the the crutial element blocking them to be able to represent the dynamic sporty qualities they wanted. Dynamic aspects didn't go well with the forms representing the old establisment already known to everybody. Thus for the sake of safeplay – and following the spirit of the age – the nationalistic style won the foreground.
    Pins and unifroms wanted to represent the timelessness and longevity of both principle and practice. We shouldn't underestimate the human condition of avariciousness though. It had two basic sourses. First of all people could see that a cyclist wearing a uniform is not using the particular vehicle as a means of mobility while working (so he is not the local grocer’s errand boy), but a „gentleman”. This motivation is also shown in the size of the pins: most are around 40 mm big. This is exactly the size you will notice from even further away, but is not making the cap uncomfotable to wear due to it's weight. Otherwise a uniform and a shiny pin would show masculinity, power. The draw of men towards uniforms is also visible in the example of how similar the Hungarian bicycle sporting outfit was to the elit huszár (famous centuries old Hungarian cavalry unit) uniform by simply imitating it's curves.

  • edited August 13

    In the history of Hungarian cycling the turn of the century is the most important period of changes. During these years in more and more social scenes the bicycle tax is announced. This lowered the interest in and the moral regarding cycling and a destroyed several bicycle clubs. Even the strongest associations (for example Vándorkedv Kerékpár Kör) could only survive these hard times with a minimum amount of members. In a very slow pace a new tendency was unfolding: bicycle clubs changing into sport associations has started.

    Article translated for Waffenradforums.net by BikeInfantry, 2018.08.13.

    ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

    Magyar Kerékpáregyletek 1882-1900 között / Hungarian Bicycle Clubs 1882-1900

    NAME OF CLUB / SEAT OF ORGANIZATION / YEAR OF FOUNDING



    I have also uploaded all 3 pages in 1 pdf for thos who want to use this material.

  • Example for club pins:
    (these are not original illustrations of the article above)

  • Looking very similar - despite the differnt cultural environment:


  • edited August 14

    Medal from early XX. century (Hungary):



  • edited September 6

    Front page of Kerékpár és Motorsport (Bicycle and Motorsport) from 13 November 1930.
    Headlines detailing the decrease of road cycling during the season of 1930.

    Front Seite von Kerékpár és Motorsport (Fahrad und Motorsport) 13 November 1930.
    Eine Verringerung vom Radfahrtsport in Ungarn wird von der Zeitung festgestellt.

  • XVI. évf. 35. sz. 1930. november 13.
    Címlap grafika: Pólya Tibor.
    A Magyar Kerékpáros Szövetség és Tagegyesületeinek Hivatalos Lapja, Budapest. 10 p. Tűzve.
    A tűzőkapcsok rozsdásak.

    [XVI. Vol. 35. issue. 13. November 1930.]
    Cover graphics: Pólya Tibor.
    The Hungarian Cyclist Association and its member associations' official periodical, Budapest. 10 p. Saddle stitched.
    Clasps are rusty.

    15 €

    (The prices on our website and this catalogue can be slightly different because they are depend on the Hungarian National Bank’s current rate.)

    Source: http://muzeumantikvarium.hu/item/-71-355

  • edited November 6

    ÉLETKÉPEK KÉSŐBBI IDŐSZAKOKBÓL / PICTURES FROM LATER PERIODS (HUNGARY)

    1. A virágárusnak munkaeszköze volt a kerékpár (fotó: a Móra Ferenc Múzeum gyűjteményéből; leltári szám: mfm_n08436)

    1. Apa és fia az egykori Tisza Állami Áruház előtt (fotó: a Móra Ferenc Múzeum gyűjteményéből; leltári szám: mfm_t14709)

    Forrás / source: https://szeged.hu/hirek/23244/mivel-kozlekedunk-szegeden-1-resz-husz-ev-alatt-megharomszorozodott-a-kerekparosok-szama

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